Literature Review of the Microalga Prymnesium parvum and its Associated Toxicity

Sean Watson, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, August 2001

TOC

Literature Cited

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Chang, F. H. and K. G. Ryan. 1985.
Prymnesium calathiferum sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae), a new species isolated from Northland, New Zealand. Phycologia 24: 191-198.
Cheng, J. Y. and N. J. Antia. 1970.
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Persistence of cell division phasing in marine phytoplankton in continuous light after entrainment to light: dark cycles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 51 (2-3): 107-118.
Cisneros, S. Fish Kills at Possum Kingdom and Granbury Under Investigation.
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Cisneros, S. Update on Possum Kingdom and Granbury Fish Kills.
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Comin, F. A. and X. Ferrer. 1978.
Mass development of the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum Carter (Haptophyceae) in a coastal lagoon in the Ebro Delta. Oecol. Aquat., no. 3: 207-210.
Dafni, Z., S. Ulitzur, and M. Shilo. 1972.
Influence of light and phosphate on toxin production and growth of Prymnesium parvum. Journal of General Microbiology 70: 199-207.
Dickson, D. M. J. and G. O. Kirst. 1987.
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Droop, M. R. 1962.
Organic micronutrients. Pages 141-160 In: R. A. Lewin (ed). Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae. Academic Press, NY.
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Glass, J., G. Linam and J. Ralph. 1991.
The association of Prymnesium parvum with fish kills in Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Document. 8 pages.
Green, J. C., D. J. Hibberd, and R. N. Pienaar. 1982.
The taxonomy of Prymnesium (Prymnesiophyceae) including a description of a new cosmopolitan species, P. patellifera sp. nov., and further observations on P. parvum N. Carter. British Phycological Journal 17: 363-382.
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Igarashi, T., M. Satake and T. Yasumoto. 1999.
Structures and partial stereochemical assignments for prymnesin-1 and prymnesin-2: potent hemolytic and ichthyotoxic glycosides isolated from the red tide alga Prymnesium parvum. Journal of the American Chemical Society 121 (37): 8499-8511.
James, T. and A. De La Cruz. 1989.
Prymnesium parvum Carter (Chrysophyceae) as a suspect of mass mortalities of fish and shellfish communities in western Texas. Texas Journal of Science 41 (4): 429-430.
Jochem, F. J. 1999.
Dark survival strategies in marine phytoplankton assessed by cytometric measurement of metabolic activity with fluorescein diacetate. Marine biology 135 (4): 721-728.
Johansson, N. and E. Graneli. 1999.
Influence of different nutrient conditions on cell density, chemical composition and toxicity of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) in semi-continuous cultures. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239 (2): 243-258.
Johnsen, T. M. and T. E. Lein. 1989.
Prymnesium parvum Carter (Prymnesiophyceae) in association with macroalgae in Ryfylke, Southwestern Norway. Sarsia 74 (4): 277-281.
Kaartvedt, S., T. M. Johnsen, D. L. Aksnes, U. Lie and H. Svendsen. 1991.
Occurrence of the toxic phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum and associated fish mortality in a Norwegian fjord system. Canadina Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48 (12): 2316-2323.
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Isolation and structural elucidation of hemolysin from the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum. Agric. Biol. Chem. 46 (1): 233-236.
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Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 478 pp.
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Growth and colony formation of the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum Carter on solid media. Journal of Protozoology 14 (3): 477-480.
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Growth of Prymnesium parvum in the dark; note on the ichthyotoxin formation. Journal of Protozoology 12 (2): 246-250.
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Effect of illumination on ichthyotoxin in an axenic culture of Prymnesium parvum Carter. Journal of Protozoology 9 (1): 38-40.
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Factors governing the toxicity of cultures containing phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum Carter. Journal of General Microbiology 8: 333-343.
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Conditions which determine the efficiency of ammonium sulphate in the control of Prymnesium parvum in fish breeding ponds. Applied Microbiology 1: 330-333.
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Introduction


Aditional Information:

Would you like to know more?
The Biology of Golden Alga summarizes what we know about the alga and its toxins.

Where does golden alga fit compared to other single-celled organisms?
The Golden Alga Family Tree gives examples of and information about golden alga and other protists.

What does golden alga look like?
TPWD Golden Alga Images has photos of fish kills, golden algal cells, and short videos of live golden alga. These images may be used for noncommercial/educational purposes as long as TPWD is given credit and other site policies are followed.

Golden Alga Information Card: TPWD has collaborated with TCEQ and other entities to produce a golden alga information card(pdf document). The purpose of this card is to educate the public on golden alga blooms and answer some common questions. Hard copies of this card are available for free by contacting 512 389-8750.

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