National Science Education Standardshttp://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/html/
- Life Science CONTENT STANDARD C:
- Structure and function in living systems
- Regulation and behavior
- Populations and ecosystems
- Diversity and adaptations of organisms
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives CONTENT STANDARD F:
- Populations, resources, and environments
- Natural hazards
- Risks and benefits
- Science and technology in society
- History and Nature of Science CONTENT STANDARD G:
- Science as a human endeavor
- Nature of science
Scientific processes –All Levels
- organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;
- communicate valid conclusions; and
- analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;
- evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;
- 4.5.A identify and describe the roles of some organisms in living systems…
- 4.5.B predict and draw conclusions about what happens when part of a system is removed.
- 4.8.A identify characteristics that allow members within a species to survive and reproduce;
- 4.8.B compare adaptive characteristics of various species;
- 4.11.B summarize the effects of the oceans on land;
- 5.5.A describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system; and
- 5.5.B describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.
- 5.6.B identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles; and
- 5.6.C describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals.
- 5.9.A compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem;
- 5.9.B analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem; and
- 5.9.C predict some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem.
- 6.5.B describe how the properties of a system are different from the properties of its parts.
- 6.5.C describe energy flow in living systems including food chains and food webs.
- 6.10.A differentiate between structure and function;
- 6.10.C identify how structure complements function at different levels of organization including organs, organ systems, organisms, and populations.
- 6.12.A identify responses in organisms to internal stimuli such as hunger or thirst;
- 6.12.B identify responses in organisms to external stimuli …
- 6.12.C identify components of an ecosystem to which organisms may respond.
- 7.5.A describe how systems may reach equilibrium …
- 7.9.B describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments.
- 7.10.B compare traits of organisms of different species that enhance their survival and reproduction; and
- 7.11.B identify responses in organisms to external stimuli found in the environment …
- 7.12.A identify components of an ecosystem;
- 7.12.B observe and describe how organisms including producers, consumers, and decomposers live together in an environment and use existing resources;
- 7.12.C describe how different environments support different varieties of organisms; and
- 7.14.C make inferences and draw conclusions about effects of human activity on Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.
- 8.6.B identify feedback mechanisms that maintain equilibrium of systems …
- 8.6.C describe interactions within ecosystems.
- 8.10.B describe interactions among solar, weather, and ocean systems; and
- 8.11.A identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species;
- 8.12.C predict the results of modifying the Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles.
- 8.14.B analyze how natural or human events may have contributed to the extinction of some species; and
- 8.14.C describe how human activities have modified soil, water, and air quality.
A student should understand scientific facts, concepts, principles, and theories.
- understand the strength and effects of forces of nature… (Forces of Nature);
- understand the transfers and transformations of matter and energy that link living things and their physical environment, from molecules to ecosystems (Flow of Matter and Energy);
- distinguish the patterns of similarity and differences in the living world in order to understand the diversity of life and understand the theories that describe the importance of diversity for species and ecosystems (Diversity);
- the interdependence between living things and their environments;
- that the living environment consists of individuals, populations, and communities; and
- that a small change in a portion of an environment may affect the entire environment (Interdependence);
- use science to understand and describe the local environment (Local Knowledge); and
A student should possess and understand the skills of scientific inquiry.
- use the processes of science; these processes include observing, classifying, measuring, interpreting data, inferring, communicating, controlling variables, developing models and theories, hypothesizing, predicting, and experimenting;
A student should understand the nature and history of science.
- understand that society, culture, history, and environment affect the development of scientific knowledge;
- understand that sharing scientific discoveries is important to influencing individuals and society and in advancing scientific knowledge;
- understand that major scientific breakthroughs may link large amounts of knowledge, build upon the contributions of many scientists, and cross different lines of study; and
A student should be able to apply scientific knowledge and skills to make reasoned decisions about the use of science and scientific innovations.
- apply scientific knowledge and skills to understand issues and everyday events;
- understand that scientific innovations may affect our economy, safety, environment, health, and society and that these effects may be long or short term, positive or negative, and expected or unexpected;
- recommend solutions to everyday problems by applying scientific knowledge and skills;
- evaluate the scientific and social merits of solutions to everyday problems;
- participate in reasoned discussions of public policy related to scientific innovations and proposed technological solutions to problems; and
- act upon reasoned decisions and evaluate the effectiveness of the action.