The Paluxy River runs through the area, and the terrain is wooded, hilly and semi-rocky. Plants in the Paluxy River drainage are characteristic of the Cross Timbers and Prairie vegetational areas. The uplands show similarities with the plants of the Edwards Plateau to the south and west, supporting Ashe juniper, live oak, Texas red oak and Texas ash, with some post oak and mesquite and various grasses and shrubs. Trees in the bottomlands are mainly American elm, cedar elm, Texas sugarberry, burr oak and green ash. In well-watered zones along the river, the woodlands are made up of pecan, walnut, cottonwood, sycamore, black willow, and several kinds of shrubs and vines.
The area hosts many species of both resident and migrant birds, including the endangered golden-cheeked warbler and the black-capped vireo, along with wild turkeys. Waterfowl are occasionally seen near ponds and slack water pools. Mammals known to live in this environment include white-tailed deer, coyotes, bobcats, raccoons, beavers, skunks, opossums, armadillos, fox squirrels, rabbits and small rodents. There are also several kinds of lizards and snakes, and a variety of fish live in suitable portions of the river. A bird checklist is available at park headquarters.