The topography of the park tends to reflect that of the Texas Hill Country; however, there are no active springs or permanent surface waters on the property. Vegetation in the park consists of a mixture of live oak, juniper, Texas persimmon, mountain laurel and some mesquite, as well as large stands of pinyon pine.
There is a diverse array of wildlife in the park. Some of the mammals more commonly seen include white-tailed deer, raccoons, ringtails, gray foxes, rock squirrels, porcupines, rabbits and various rodents. Bird diversity is quite good. A large variety of migratory birds nest or fly through the area from spring to fall. The park has become popular for locating hard-to-find species such as gray vireo, varied bunting and Montezuma quail. Kickapoo Cavern State Park is home to one of the largest breeding populations of the endangered black-capped vireo on state-owned lands. Various uncommon species of reptiles and amphibians live in the park, including the barking frog, mottled rock rattlesnake and Texas alligator lizard.
- All bats are very important to the environment.
- Nectar-drinking bats help to pollinate certain plants. The giant saguaro cactus and many other night-blooming desert plants would cease to exist without their help.
- Fruit-eating bats help rainforests grow by spreading seeds through their droppings.
- Insect-eating bats act as a natural pest control agent to the agricultural community and decrease the need for spraying harmful pesticides on crops.